All posts by temujin

I am enthusiastic about God, Health, Sustainability, Environment 40 years ago I discovered ability of exercise 30 tears ago I discovered power of food 10 years ago I realized that God is in charge of everything...

King of the weeds Dandelion


Taraxacum Officinale (Family: Asteraceae)

This is well known to have many long and deep gashed Leaves lying on the ground, round about the head of the roots; the ends of each gash or Jag, on both sides looking downwards towards the roots, the middle rib being white which being broken yields abundance of bitter milk, but the root much more: from among the leaves which always abide green, arise many slender, weak, naked foot-stalks, every one of them bearing at the top one large yellow flower, TaraxacumOfficinale1consisting of many rows of yellow leaves, broad at the points and nicked in with a deep spot of yellow in the middle, which growing ripe, the green husk wherein the flower stood turns it self down to the stalk, and the head of down becomes as round as a ball, with long seed underneath, bearing a part of the down TaraxacumOfficinale4on the head of every one, which together is blown away with the wind, or may be at once blown away with one’s mouth. The root growth downwards exceeding deep, which being broken off within the ground, will yet shoot forth again; and will hardly be destroyed where it hath once taken deep root in the ground.


It grows frequent in all meadows and pasture- grounds.


It flowers in one place or other almost all the year long.

 Government and virtues.

It is under the dominion of Jupiter. It is an opening and cleansing quality, and therefore very effectual for the obstructions of the liver, gall, and spleen, and the diseases that arise from them, as the jaundice, and hypocondriac; it opens passages of TaraxacumOfficinale5the urine both in young and old; powerfully cleanses iposthumes, and inward ulcers in the urinary passages, and by its drying, and temperate quality doth afterwards heal them; for which purpose the decoction of the roots or leaves in white wine, or the leaves chopped as pot-herbs with a few TaraxacumOfficinale6Alisanders and boiled in their broth, are very effectual. And whoever is drawing towards a consumption or an evil disposition of the whole body, called Cachexia, by the use hereof for some time together, shall find a wonderful help. It helps also to procure rest and sleep to bodies distempered by the heat of ague fits, or other wise: The distilled water is effectual to drink in pestilential fevers, and to wash the sores.

You see here what virtues this common herb hath, and that is the reason the French and Dutch so often eat them in the Spring; and now if you look a little farther, you may see plainly without a pair of not so selfish as ours are, but more communicative of the Culpepervirtues of plants to people.

 Nicholas Culpeper


Dialog between Glaucon and Socrates

Plato wrote a dialogue between two characters, Socrates and Glaucon, in which they discuss the future of their cities. Socrates says the cities should village1be simple, and the citizens should subsist on barley
and wheat, with “relishes” of salt, olives, cheese and “country fare of boiled onions and cabbage,” with desserts of “figs, peas, beans,” roasted myrtle-berries and beechnuts, and wine in moderation. Socrates says, “And thus, passing their days in tranquility and sound health, they will, in all probability, live to an advanced age …. ”
But Glaucon replies that such a diet would only be appropriate for “a community of swine,” and that citysthe citizens should live “in a civilized manner.” He continues, “They ought to recline on couches … and have the usual dishes and dessert of a modem dinner.” In other words, the citizens should have the “luxury” of eating meat. Socrates replies, “if you wish us also to contemplate a city that is suffering from inflammation …. We shall also need great quantities of all kinds of cattle for those who may wish to eat them, shall we not?”
Glaucon says, “Of course we shall.” Socrates then says, “Then shall we not experience the need of doc2medical men also to a much greater extent
under this than under the former regime?” Glaucon can’t deny it. “Yes, indeed,” he says. Socrates goes on to say that this luxurious city will be short of land because of the extra acreage required to raise animals for food. This shortage will lead the citizens to take land from others, which could precipitate violence and war, thus a need for justice.
Furthermore, Soclawyer1rates writes, “when dissoluteness and diseases abound in a city, are not law courts and surgeries opened in abundance, and do not Law and Physic begin to hold their heads high, when numbers even of well-gavelborn persons devote themselves with eagerness to these professions?”
In other words, in this luxurious city of sickness and disease, lawyers and doctors will become the norm.
Plato, in this passage, made it perfectly clear: we shall eat animals only at our own peril. Though it is indeed remarkable that one of the greatest intellectuals in the history of the Western world condemned meat eating almost 2,500 years ago.

How did Plato predict the future so accurately? He knew that consuming animal foods would not lead to true health and prosperity. Instead, the false sense of rich luxury granted by being able to eat animals would only lead to a culture of sickness, disease, land disputes, lawyers and doctors. This is a pretty good description of some of the challenges faced by modern America!

You don’t have Root Cellar?

root_cellar2Root cellar is a wonderful structure used to store food, vegetable, root vegetable, and fruits. Structure can by built underground, partially underground or above ground, but very well insulated.  Purpose of root cellar is to keeping the temperature and humidity in stable range.  

RootCellar4Cold storage of fruits and vegetables was used extensively by our ancestors to keep food after the harvest season.  People used root cellars to store besides the vegetable, and fruits, vine, caned food, home made alcoholic beverages, salt meat, smoked bacon, and fish. In modern times, the year round availability of fresh produce in the supermarket has reduced the  use of home storage. However, even today there are benefits of home storage, which make it a good alternative to buying produce from the store. Most importantly, home gardeners often have excess fruits and  vegetables that cannot be consumed immediately but would store well. Even those without gardens can buy food ‘in season’ when it is fresh and inexpensive and then store it at home until a later date. Both these options are cheaper than buying food in the winter when it is often quite expensive. In addition, stored food harvested at peak maturity from the garden usually has better flavor and a higher nutritional value.
RootCellar5When harvesting your own produce for storage, or buying it locally in season, there are certain guidelines to follow which assure
maximum quality and minimum spoilage of your stored food.

  •  Harvest fruits and vegetables at peak maturity or as near as possible.
  • Only use produce that is free from all visible evidence of disease.
  • Do not pick any fruit or vegetable that has severe insect damage.
  • Handle food carefully after harvest so that it is not cut or bruised.
  • Leave an inch or more of stem on most vegetables to reduce water loss and prevent infection.
  • Use late-maturing varieties better suited to storage.

root_cellar1In general, use only the best food for storage. Damaged food is more likely to suffer mold and bacterial decay during storage and
thus should be used fresh, processed, or discarded.
Once harvested, fruits and vegetables must be stored under proper conditions, the most important


of which are temperature and
humidity. Each fruit or vegetable has its own ideal set of conditions at which it will store most successfully for the maximum length of time. These conditions can be classified into four groups:

  1. Vegetables which require cold & moist conditions
  2. Vegetables which require cool & moist conditions
  3. Vegetables which require cold & dry conditions
  4. Vegetables which require warm & dry conditions

The tables on the following list temperature and humidity requirements for most vegetables. In addition to proper
temperature and humidity, all fruits and vegetables must be kept in a dark, aerated environment. While most vegetables like moist
conditions, standing water must be avoided, as it will quickly lead root_cellar3to rot. Produce must not be allowed to freeze and should be protected from animal pests such as mice. It is important to remember that crops held in storage are still living plants, capable of respiration and affected by their environment. The goal of
storage is to keep them in a dormant state.
*One other note, fruits and vegetables should always be stored separately. Fruits release ethylene, which speeds the ripening process of vegetables. Fruits are also very susceptible to
picking up the taste of nearby vegetables.

Fruits & Vegetable that require cold, moist conditions
Name Temperature (`C} Humidity (%) Lenfh of storage
Asparagus 0-2 95 2-3 w
Apples 0 90 2-6 m
Beets 0 95 3-5 m
Broccoli 0 95 10-14 d
Brussels Srouts 0 95 3-5 w
Cabbage, Early 0 95 3-6 w
Cabbage, Late 0 95 3-4 m
Cabbage, Chinese 0 95 1-2 m
Carots, mature 0 95 4-5 m
Canots, immature 0 95 4-6 w
Cauliflower 0 95 2-4 w
Celeriac 0 95 3-4 m
Celery 0 95 2-3 m
Collards 0 95 10-14 d
Corn, sweet 0 95 4-8 d
Endive, Escarole 0 95 2-3 w
Grapes 0 90 4-6 w
Kale 0 95 10-14 d
Leeks, green 0 95 1-3 m
Lettuce 0 95 2-3 w
Parsley 0 95 1-2 m
Parsnips 0 95 2-6 m
Pears 0 95 2-7 m
Peas. green 0 95 1-3 w
Potatoes, early 10 90 1-3 w
Potatoes, late 4 90 4-9 m
Radishes, spring 0 95 3-4 w
Radishes, winter 0 95 2-4 m
Rhubarib 0 95 2-4 w
Rutabagas 0 95 2-4 m
Spinach 0 95 10-14 d
Vegetabtes that require cool, moist conditions
Name Temperature (`C} Humidity (%) Lenfh of storage
Bears. snap 4-10 95 7-10 d
Cucumbers 7-10 95 10-14 d
Eggplaat 7-10 90 1 w
Cantaloupe 4 90 15 d
Watermelon 4-10 80-85 2-3 w
Peppers sweet 7-10 95 2-3 w
Potatoes, early 10 90 1-3 w
Potatoes, late 4 90 4-9 m
Tomatoes, green 10-21 90 1-3 w
Tomatoes, ripe 7-10 90 4-7 d
Vegetables that require cool, dry conditions
Name Temperature (`C} Humidity (%) Lenfh of storage
Garlic, onion 0 65-70 6-7 m
Vegetables that require warm dry conditions
Name Temperature (`C} Humidity (%) Lenfh of storage
Peppers, hot 10 60-65 6 m
Pumpkins 10-15 70-75 2-3 m
Squash, winnter 10-15 50-60 2-6 m
Sweet Potato 13- 15 80-85 4-6 m

Would you like to build your own root cellar?  Here is my step by step video. If you have any question don’t hesitate to ask.


Comfrey forbidden but miraculously good

Symphytum officinale. (Family: Boraginaceae)


The common great comfrey hath divers very large hairy green leaves, lying on the ground, so hairy or prickly, that if they touch any tender part of the hands, face, or body, it will cause it to itch: the stalks that riseth up from among them, being two or three feet high, hollowed and cornered; as also very hairy, having many such like leaves as grow below, but less and less up to the top. At the joints of the stalks it is divided into many branches, with some leaves thereon; and at the ends stand many flowers in order one above another, which are somewhat long and hollow, like the comfrey5finger of a glove, of a pale whitish colour, after which come small black seed. The roots are great and long, spreading great thick branches under ground, black on the outside and whitish within, short and easy to break, and full of a glutinous or clammy juice, of little or no taste.

There is another sort in all things like this, save only it is somewhat less, and beareth flowers of a pale purple colour.


They grow by ditches and water sides, and in divers fields that are moist, for therein they chiefly delight to grow: the first generally through all the land, and the other not quite so common.


They flower in June and July, and give their seed in August.

Government and virtues.

This is an herb of Saturn, and I suppose under the sign Capricorn, cold, dry, and earthy in quality. What was spoken of clown’s wound wort may be said of this; the great comfrey helpeth those that spit blood, or make a bloody urine: the root boiled in water or wine, and the decoction drunk, helpeth all inward hurts, bruises, and wounds, and the ulcers of the lungs, causing the phlegm that oppresseth comfrey2them to be easily spit forth; it stayeth the defluxions of rheum from the head upon the lungs, the fluxes of blood or humours by the belly, women’s immoderate courses, as well the reds as the whites; and the running of the reins, happening by what cause soever. A syrup made thereof is very effectual for all those inward griefs and hurts; and the distilled water for the same purpose also, and for outward wounds and sores in the fleshy or sinewy part of the body wheresoever; as also to take away the fits of agues, and to allay the sharpness of humours. A decoction of the leaves hereof is available to all the purposes, though not so effectual as of the roots. The root, being outwardly applied, helpeth fresh wounds or cuts immediately, being bruised and laid thereunto; and is especial good for ruptures and broken bones; yea, it is said to be so powerful to consolidate and knit together, that, if they are boiled with dissevered pieces of flesh in a pot, it will join them together again. It is good to be applied to women’s breasts that grow sore by the abundance of milk coming into them; as also to repress the over much bleeding of comfrey6the hemorrhoids, to cool the inflammation of the parts thereabout, and to give ease of pains. The roots of comfrey taken fresh, beaten small, and spread upon leather, and laid upon any place troubled with the gout, do presently give ease of the pains; and applied in the same manner, give ease to pained joints, and profit very much for running and moist ulcers, gangrenes, mortifications, and the like, for which it hath by often experience been found helpful.

CulpeperNicholas Culpeper

Lavender the fragrance of home

lavender3 Lavandula angustifolia. (Family: Lamiaceae)

Being an inhabitant almost in every garden, it is so well known, that it needs no description.


It flowers about the end of June, and beginning of July.

lavender4Government and virtues.

Mercury owns the herb; and it carries his effects very potently. Lavender is of a special good use for all the griefs and pains of the head and brain that proceed of a cold cause, as the apoplexy, falling-sickness, the dropsy, or sluggish malady, cramps, convulsions, palsies, and often faintings. It strengthens the stomach, and frees the liver and spleen from obstructions, provokes women’s courses, and expels the dead child and after-birth. The flowers of Lavender steeped in wine, helps them to make water that are stopped, or are troubled with the wind or cholic, if the place be bathed therewith. A decoction made with the flowers of Lavender, Hore-hound, Fennel and Asparagus root, and a little Cinnamon, is very profitably used to help the falling-sickness, and the giddiness or turning of the brain: to gargle the mouth with the decoction thereof is good against the tooth-ache. Two spoonfuls of the distilled water of the flowers lavender2taken, helps them that have lost their voice, as also the tremblings and passions of the heart, and faintings and swooning, not only being drank, but applied to the temples, or nostrils to be smelled unto; but it is not safe to use it where the body is replete with blood and humours, because of the hot and subtile spirits wherewith it is possessed. The chymical oil drawn from Lavender, usually called Oil of Spike, is of so fierce and piercing a quality, that it is cautiously to be used, some few drops being sufficient, to be given with other things, either for inward or outward griefs.

CulpeperNicholas Culpeper

St. John’s Wort you know for what?

st-johns-wort4 Hypericum perforatum.  (Symphytum officinale)


Common St. John’s Wort shoots forth brownish, upright, hard, round stalks, two feet high, spreading many branches from the sides up to the tops of them, with two small leaves set one against another at every place, which are of a deep green colour, somewhat like the leaves of the lesser Centaury, but narrow, and full of small holes in every leaf, which cannot be so well perceived, as when they are held up to the light; at the tops of the stalks and branches stand yellow flowers of five leaves a-piece, with many yellow threads in the middle, which being bruised do yield a reddish juice like blood; after which come small round heads, wherein is contained small blackish seed smelling like rosin. The root is hard and woody, with divers strings and fibres at it, of a brownish colour, which abides in the ground many years, shooting anew every Spring.


This grows in woods and copses, as well those that are shady, as open to the sun.


They flower about Midsummer and July, and their seed is ripe in the latter end of July or August.

Government and virtues.

It is under the celestial sign Leo, and the dominion of the Sun. It may be, if you meet a Papist, he will tell you, especially if he be a lawyer, that St. John made it over to him by a letter of attorney. It is a st-johns-wort3singular wound herb; boiled in wine and drank, it heals inward hurts or bruises; made into an ointment, it open obstructions, dissolves swellings, and closes up the lips of wounds. The decoction of the herb and flowers, especially of the seed, being drank in wine, with the juice of knot-grass, helps all manner of vomiting and spitting of blood, is good for those that are bitten or stung by any venomous creature, and for those that cannot make water. Two drams of the seed of St. John’s Wort made into powder, and drank in a little broth, doth gently expel choler or congealed blood in the stomach. The decoction of the leaves and seeds drank somewhat warm before the fits of agues, whether they be tertains or quartans, alters the fits, and, by often using, doth take them quite away. The seed is much commended, being drank for forty days together, to help the sciatica, the falling sickness, and the palsy.

CulpeperNicholas Culpeper

Balm, herb you know better

balm3Melissa officinalis. (Family: Lamiaceae)

This herb is so well known to be an inhabitant almost in every garden, that I shall not need to write any description thereof, although its virtues, which are many, may not be omitted.

Government and virtues.

It is an herb of Jupiter, and under Cancer, and strengthens nature much in all its actions. Let a syrup made with the juice of it and sugar (as you shall be taught at the latter end of this book) he kept in every gentlewoman’s house to relieve the weak stomachs and Sick bodies of their poor sickly neighbours; as also the herb kept dry in the house, that so with other convenient simples, you may make it into an balm2electuary with honey, according as the disease is you shall be taught at the latter end of my hook. The Arabian physicians have extolled the virtues thereof to the skies: although the Greeks thought it not worth mentioning. Seraphio says, it causes the mind and heart to become merry, and revives the heart, faintings and swoonings, especially of such who are overtaken in sleep, and drives away all troublesome cares and thoughts out of the mind, arising from melancholy or black choler; which Avicen also confirms. It is very good to help digestion, and open obstructions of the brain, and hath so much purging quality in it (saith Avicen) as to expel those melancholy vapours from the spirits balm1and blood which are in the heart and arteries, although it cannot do so in other parts of the body. Dioscorides says, That the leaves steeped in wine and the wine drank, and the ‘leaves externally applied, is a remedy against the stings of a scorpion, and the bitings of mad dogs; and commends the decoction thereof for women to bathe or sit in to procure their courses; it is good to wash aching teeth therewith, and profitable for those that have the bloody-flux. The leaves also, with a little nitre taken in drink, are good against the surfeit of mushrooms, helps the griping pains of the belly; and being made into a electuary, it is good for them that cannot fetch their breath: Used with stilt, it takes away wens, kernels, or hard swellings in the flesh or throat; it cleanses foul sores, and eases pains of the gout. It is good for the liver and spleen. A tansy or candle made with eggs, and juice thereof while it it is young, putting to it some sugar and rosewater, is good for a woman in child-bed, when the after-birth is not toroughly voided, and for their faintings upon or in their sore travail. The herb bruised and boiled in a little wine and oil, and laid warm on a boil, will ripen it, and break it.

CulpeperNicholas Culpeper

Bitter-Sweet, for help well being

Bittersweet_Nightshade2Solanum dulcamara. (Family Solanaceae)

CONSIDERING divers shires in this nation give divers names to one and the same herb, and that the common name which it bears in one county, is not known in another; I shall take the pains to set down all the names that I know of each herb: pardon me for setting that name first, which is most common to myself. Besides Amara Dulcis, some call it Mortal, others Bitter-sweet; some Woody Night~shade, and others Felon-wort.


It grows up with woody stalks even to a man’s height, and sometimes higher. The leaves fall off at the approach of winter, and spring out of the same stalk at spring-time: the branch is compassed about with a whitish bark, and has a pith in the middle of it: the main branch branches itself into many small ones with claspers, laying hold on what is next to them, as vines dc: it bears many leaves, they grow in no order at all, at least in no regular order: the leaves are longish, though somewhat broad, and pointed at the ends: many of them have two little leaves growing at the end of their foot stalk; some have but one, and some none. The leaves are of a pale green colour; the flowers are of a purple colour, or of a perfect blue, like to violets, and they stand many of them together in knots: the berries are green at first, but when they are ripe they are very red; if you taste them, you shall find them just as the crabs which we in Sussex call Bitter-sweet, viz. sweet at first and bitter afterwards.


They grow commonly almost throughout England, especially in moist and shady places.

Time] The leaves shoot out about the latter end of March, if the temperature of the air be ordinary ; it flowers in July, and the seeds are ripe soon after, usually in the next month.

Govermneut and virtues.

It is under the planet Mercury, and a notable herb of his also, if it be rightly gathered under his influence. It is excellently good to remove witchcraft both in men and beasts, as also all sudden diseases whatsoever. Being tied round about the neck, is one of the most admirable remedies for the vertigo or dizziness in the head; and that is the reason (as Tragus saith) the people in Germany commonly hang it about their cattle’s necks when they fear any such evil hath betided them: Country people commonly take the berries of it, and having bruised them, apply them to felons, and thereby soon rid their fingers of such troublesome guests.

Bittersweet_Nightshade_192We have now showed you the external use of the herb; we shall speak a word or two of  the internal, and so conclude. Take notice, it is a Mercurial herb, and therefore of very subtile parts, as indeed all Mercurial plants are ; therefore take a pound of the wood and leaves together, bruise the wood (which you may easily do, for it is not so hard as oak) then put it in a pot, and put to it three pints or white wine, put on the pot-lid and shut it close; and let infuse hot over a gentle fire twelve hours, then strain it out, so have you a

most excellent drink to open obstructions of the liver and spleen, to help difficulty of breath, bruises and falls, and congealed blood in any part of the body, it help the yellow jaundice, the dropsy, and black jaundice, and to Cleanse women newly brought to bed. You may drink a quarter of a pint of the infusion every morning. It purges the body very gently, and not churlishly as some hold. And when you find good by this, remelnber me.

‘They that think the use of these medicines is too brief, it is only for the cheapness of the book; let them read those books of mine, of the last edition, viz. Reverius, Vesliugus, , Riolanus, Johnson, Sennertus, and Phsysic the Poor.

CulpeperNicholas Culpeper

Grud, gas why- Biodigester is an answer

Socrates said: “


energy, or soul is separate from matter, and that the universe is made of energy – which was there before mankind and mater like the earth came along.


Einstein said. “Everything is a energy. ”

Quantum physics says when you go deeper to the atom, you are going to find only waves of electric energy, nothing else.

Bioenergy has been here ever since life was created, is here in present, and it will be here for whatever mankind is going to do with it. Only one thing is good to know how to get advantage of BIOENERGY.

Fossil fuel is running out of battery, nuclear power is threaten us very badly see Chernobyl, Fukushima. Gold is pushing prices up to the sky. Food industry, manufacturing food which is not worthy eat. and add, add, add…

Check this out around. Biodiversity of forest, rain forest. Until mankind did not touch it, we have time to explore those ecosystems by our own eyes, and to learn how we can make symbiosis with nature, before we ruin it all out.

Biodigestor-esquemaOne of many sources of Bioenergy is bio digester. This sofisticated thing is really eating our waste and producing methane. Our society, and our life style  are producing so much waste, and waste management it just covering it with soil and that’s it. We waste too much energy, and that energy could be renewable almost on 95%. Are we smart or stupid I would say second is right answer.

project_imageBiogas Technology

Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source produced through the anaerobic (oxygen free) digestion of organic matter whereby the organic matter is converted into a combustible biogas rich in methane (CH4) and a liquid effluent. In general, biogas consists of 55 percent to 80 percent methane and 20 percent to 45 percent carbon dioxide (CO2). However, depending on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion process, small amounts of other gases such as ammonia (NH3), c8e98b81c2ba0795bb86ac223c3b00d3hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and water vapor (H2O) may be present. It is the methane component of the biogas that will burn or produce energy. The gas can be used to generate heat or electricity or both. It can be burned in a conventional gas boiler to produce heat for nearby buildings or to heat the digester, or used in a gas engine to produce electricity. As the organic material (feedstock) is added to the system, the digested effluent is pumped from the digester. The effluent can be stored in a tank and later applied to the land at an appropriate time as a fertilizer without further treatment.  The solids can be composted prior to sale for use as a compost or animal bedding. The liquid still contains nutrient that can be sold or used on the farm as a liquid fertilizer as part of a crop nutrient management plan. Basic material flow in an anaerobic digestion system.
AD_Plant_mediumSources of organic matter that have been used to produce biogas include animal manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, food-processing wastes, and industrial wastes.
A typical biogas system consists of manure collection, anaerobic digestion, storage for digester effluent, and gas handling and gas use equipment.
Anaerobic digesters have been used successfully in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and on a number of livestock farms for many years. However, the use of anaerobic digestion technology on livestock farms in Canada for manure treatment and energy production has increased over the past few years.

oekobit_header1_02Properties of Methane

Pure methane is an odorless gas made up of one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen. It occurs naturally as a component of “natural gas” and is lighter than air and highly flammable. Methane can form mixtures with air that are explosive at concentrations of 5 percent to 15 percent. Methane is not toxic, but it can cause death due to asphyxiation by displacing oxygen in confined environments or spaces. The heating value of pure methane gas is 1,000 BTU per cubic foot. Additionally, methane is considered to be a powerful greenhouse gas that can remain in the atmosphere for up to 15 years, and is about 20 times more effective in trapping heat in Earth’s atmosphere than carbon dioxide.

Benefits and

Challenges of Biogas Technology

Anaerobic digestion can convert organic wastes into profitable byproducts as well as reduce their environmental pollution potential. Anaerobic digestion offers the following benefits to an Aerzen-Biogas-solutions_zoom_imageanimal feeding operation and the surrounding communities:

  • Electric and thermal energy.
  • Stable liquid fertilizer and high-quality solids for soil amendment.
  • Odor reduction.
  • Reduced groundwater and surface water contamination potential.
  • Potential revenue from sales of digested manure (liquid and solids) and excess electricity and/or processing off-site organic waste.
  • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; methane is captured and used as a fuel.
  • Revenue from possible reuse of digested solids as livestock bedding.
  • Potential revenue from green energy and carbon credits.
  • The cost of installing an anaerobic digester depends on the type and size of system, type of livestock operation, and site-specific conditions. In general, consider the following points when estimating installation/operating costs:
  • Estimate the cost of constructing the system.
  • Estimate the labor and cost of operating the system.
  • Estimate the quantity of gas produced.
  • Components of a typical biogas digester.
  • Effluent Storage
  • Digester
  • Gas Handling System
  • Electric Generation System
  • Flare or
  • Heat Source
  • Manure Source and Collection System
  • Estimate the value of the gas produced.
  • Compare operation costs to benefits from operation (include value as a waste-treatment system and the fertilizer value of the sludge and supernatant).


Breathable living- Straw Ball House

sand bagsStraw bales were a fairly common building material in the world between 18

There remains much we do not understand about appropriate ways to build with straw bales in different individual building assemblies, climate zones, and weather conditions. Two of the current straw bale construction methods include non-load-bearing or post-and-beam, which uses a structural framework with straw bale in-fill, and load-bearing, which uses the bearing capacity of the stacked bales to support roof loads.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA electrical box in straw bale wall WorkingTogetherCXbc

1800 and 1940. Boom in straw-bale home construction began to re-interest people in the mid-1960s. The biggest interest in this building technique started when the cost of conventional construction materials raised, and people started to have concern about our environment. Straw ball houses have become popular among enthusiastic people interested in living in Eco homes.

Super Insulated. Solar heating and cooling, passive solar design and solar tempering is less an issue when the house is superinsulated. Properly done, superinsulation (with accompanying sealing), greatly reduces the total amount of heat required from solar and supplemental sources. A poorly insulated house could use huge banks of south facing windows and accompanying thermal mass to provide part of the enormous heat requirements. With the well build straw bale (superinsulated house), solar measures can be modest and get the job done. If the plan looks too solar…maybe it is.

Straw Bale Module. Most plans are based on either a 3 foot (two string) or 4 foot (three string) bale module, with design decisions (outside wall dimensions, window size and placement for example) images1strongly influenced by this module. Most plans can be designed and built using either three or four tie bales (with window size and placement modified accordingly). A 12 foot wall section for example, can be constructed with 4 three foot bales, or three 4 foot bales. In the real world of straw bale home building, the bale module often gets ignored for other considerations.

Load Bearing Option. Generally, the smaller and simpler the plan, the more likely one has the option of using load bearing construction (which may be less expensive). As size and complexity increase, it becomes more likely that post and beam construction will be required. Often, a hybrid system is possible, with post and beam or stick construction on the south wall (with more windows), load bearing on the north wall (assuming few and small windows), and maybe a center suport post and beam system.

Symmetry. Many factors influence house design including for example, education, class, custom, intuition, art, science, tradition, culture, code, (you name it). Within these constraints, designers have the opportunity to bring something personal to their work. Symmetry is a theme that runs throughout mine. My underlying assumption is, if a plan looks good (to me), feels good, works well, in plan, energy will generate and flow well, and the house will be enjoyable to live in. For me, in most cases, this means symmetry. The shape, the footprint is the starting place for me, with use areas expected to fit into this matrix. In most cases, use areas gracefully adjust, in respect to the overall form. Obviously, there are other ways to design a house…

50 plans for straw ball houses